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To study ethics without paying particular attention to the special issues which arise in law or medicine is not automatically to be handicapped except in the sense that ignorance of something worth knowing is always a handicap. But to study ethics without paying attention to feminism is to be disadvantaged from the outset. For it is to assume that we are all equally well equipped feminnie understand ourselves in femniine of theories which draw most of their vitality from the experience, not of human beings at large, but of male human beings. A question to reflect on:. If not, what makes feminism special? One of the premises of feminist ethics has been that what seems to be the neutral language of ethical discourse is not fwminine at all.
Jaggar moves on p. In what ways could an ethics of care deal with the question of needy, distant strangers? There is no single definition of "feminist research" or "feminism," for that matterbut many authors ror to certain key elements as defining features. Empirically, is it really the case that women universally, or even generally, approach ethics in this way? First, feminist research is characterized by its double dimension.
How far should one sacrifice oneself? These features help distinguish feminist research from either traditional social sciences research, research that studies women, or research that attends to gender but without an agenda for change. What might the pegspective ificance of dependence be?
Feminist research cannot claim to speak for all women, but can provide new knowledge grounded in the realities of women's experiences and actively enact structural changes in the social world. Suffice it to note that this view would prrspective resisted by many ethicists of care, who want to as caring a wider moral role.
While feminist beliefs and concerns will help guide and direct the decision making process, outside forces also play a key role. As opposed to traditional research, its objectives include both the construction of new knowledge and the production of social change. Can women adopt an ethics of justice? Question: Both these issues raise pretty serious questions for an ethics of caring. She suggests that when women think about ethical problems, they consider questions about their relationships to those involved, what might constitute caring behaviour rather than selfish behaviour with respect to them, and how hurt might best be avoided.
No favouritism is involved in moral decision-making; a kind of universal perspective which femlnine would adopt seems to exist.
Before reading my summary, write down what you think are the key characteristics of FPD as Jaggar presents them. It call attention to the fact that all relationships, public and private can be characterised in terms both of equality and in terms of attachment. Or do you think all moral discussion should approximate to this — or no moral discussion should approximate to this?! So what we will be looking at in the last section of this part of the module on feminist ethics is a feminist way into perzpective about ethical dialogue involving those whose views are ethically divergent and those whose voices are often not heard.
Weston, M. What do you think she has in mind here? In another sense, then a public relationship is set up. Do you think this process really is as practical as Jaggar maintains?
As characterised by Tronto in the article we have been looking at, moral questions of this kind can be fitted into the ffeminine sphere. She suggests, for instance, that social expectations of what constitutes caring-for may be based on class, race and gendered assumptions. She argues that one can evaluate to what degree a research project is feminist by looking at the choices being made by the researcher.
This le Tronto to think in more detail about the nature of caring; on p. Or would justice do the same work and do it better? She talks, on p.
Does it make a difference whether you have created the dependence or not? Moral decisions, according to these fir, are the kinds of things that are universal.
And, similarly, moral reasoning which emphasises abstraction and rules is emphasised over partiality and particularity. Baier suggests that appropriate trust should lie at the heart of an inclusive ethics of love:. Can one choose to have it or not have it? If we consider an ethics of care as we have so far looked at it, we find a focus on caring for individuals with whom we relate, and towards whom, perhaps, we have responsibilities.
She suggests that some forms of caring-for have been privatised and marketised, leaving providers of market services to feign care. In this way, universalisation is seen feimnine capturing impartiality. The culture or society in which one conducts research, the external funding agencies, the organizations or individuals who have an investment in the outcome of the research process, publishers, and even the research team all ificantly impact on the decisions being made.
Feminist ethicists have a variety of responses to this. This can set up a power relationship where there is even the possibility that the carer geminine want to maintain the dependent relationship. Jaggar herself raises the question whether competitiveness and critical questioning might produce moral reflection more effectively than nurture and co-operation.
Similarly, one may not meet the people who inhabit the impoverished part of town — but one does participate in and vote within a political and social system fro particular policies on education, housing, taxation, transport and unemployment. Another ificant school of thought within feminist ethics uses mothering as a model for thinking about ethical problems.
Do you think they undermine it? For it is to assume that we are all equally well equipped to understand ourselves in terms of theories which draw most of their vitality from the experience, not of perspecfive beings at large, but of male human beings.
Emphasis on rationality. Much more on ecofeminism is covered in module Do you think this is possible? Ralph, D.
One can switch between theories, depending on the lioking issue. Even if one were to accept that there are situations where one has no choice about caring, clearly there are many choices about how one should care, and how for instance one should deal with conflicting caring concerns. Because of the very specific nature of this knowledge needed to care for, attentiveness is centrally ificant. Goods are in competition, not co-operation.
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